Install On A Partition Simple And Accurate

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So many things have been said, and so many things that are wrong. Some tutorials pretend you need a lot of software, but let's stay simple and accurate. Let's go !

  • You need PearPC.
  • You need VMware.
  • You need to use an entire HDD.
  • You absolutely need a PC with at least an SSE2-capable processor - check with CPU-Z or in Linux 'cat /proc/cpuinfo' and check for 'sse2' in the flags.
  • You need Linux.
  • You need a working operating system, and if you start from scratch, a Linux Live CD is the shortest path to have one.
  • You need a hard disk with only 2 partitions (one with Windows or Linux and the other for Mac OS X).

You do not need another os on your system - you can simply install OS/X, reboot and next time you are in the installer, open a terminal, type fdisk -u /dev/rdisk0 (or whatever the drive is you want to boot from)

This article utilizes the tiger-x86 image. Disclaimer : This tutorial is for use only by Apple developers who have imaged their hard disks. Under no circumstances are you to download this file from common torrent sites.


Contents

[edit] Make a new partition

[edit] New partition (Linux method)

NOTE: I had a bad experience with cfdisk. It screwed up my partition table. I recommend the Windows method, since it worked for me. English : Boot under Linux (with your current distro, or with a Live CD). At the prompt, find your disk and make a partition. (hda is your first disk, hdb second disk, hdc, etc. It is not a partition but a real full physical disk). Be sure to make a primary partition (one of the first 4) because extended partitions are not directly bootable in the standard partitionning scheme of PCs. (sucks :)

 sudo cfdisk /dev/hda

It's fairly easy to use cfdisk, just make a new partition of about 6.5 GB or more. Note down the number, like "hda2", go on the Type button, and change type to "AF" manually.

Changing the type manually means exactly that - when cfdisk asks you what type you want to be your new partition first press any key to get to the second screen and then type AF and press enter.

Go on write and write changes back to the disk. If you get a warning from cfdisk saying you should reboot, REBOOT NOW. Else, you can go on.


NOTE : If you go through this process more than once (on the same partition - to reinstall from scratch), it's highly likely that you'll get Tiger booting problems. If you get a DOS 6.0 warning in cfdisk, reboot and read the cfdisk man pages.

 man cfdisk

Here you'll find instructions to correct the broken first few bytes in your new AF partition, which is about dd'ing a few zero bytes to the start of the new partition. Once done you can proceed to dd'ing deadmoo's image.

[edit] New partition (Windows 2000/XP/2003 method)

You will need a 6 GB Partition for the OSX install. Most installs of Windows use the full drive under one partition. So you will need to free up space. There are many tools out there that can resize a partition (OSX will boot from the end of the drive, so no worries) like Partition Magic and the Linux-based GParted. Resize your partition so you have over 6.5 GB left at the end. Leave it completely blank for now (do not create a filesystem or partition of any kind).

The diskpart utility included with Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 can create a suitable partition without booting into Linux. Run diskpart from Start, Run, "cmd". You can download a Windows 2000 version of this utility from here.

DISKPART> list disk

 Disk ###  Status      Size     Free     Dyn  Gpt
 --------  ----------  -------  -------  ---  ---
 Disk 0    Online      56 GB    0 B

DISKPART> select disk 0

Disk 0 is now the selected disk.

Extended partitions will not work, only primary partitions. If there are "Extended" and "Logical" partitions, they can be deleted and a primary partition can be created in their place. The logical partition deletes fine with diskpart, but trying to delete the extended partition (the container that holds logical partitions) in diskpart may result in this error :

DISKPART> delete partition

The selected partition may be neccessary to the operation of your computer, and
may not be deleted.

If this occurs, the logical partition can be deleted in Disk Management, which can be run by typing diskmgmt.msc in cmd, or for those that prefer the GUI : Right Click My Computer -> Manage -> then select Disk Management in the computer management console. After there is enough free space, proceed to create a primary partition of type 0xaf :

DISKPART> create partition primary id=af

DISKPART> list partition

  Partition ###  Type              Size     Offset
  -------------  ----------------  -------  -------
  Partition 1    Primary           32 GB    32 KB
* Partition 2    Unknown           24 GB    32 GB

DISKPART>

exit

R.B. If this doesn't work and you get an error similar to this : Can not create partition, then you can do it with DISKPART, by doing the following.

DISKPART> Select disk 1

DISKPART> Select partition 2

DISKPART> Delete partition

DISKPART> create partition primary id=af

DISKPART> list partition

    Partition ###  Type              Size     Offset
    -------------  ----------------  -------  -------
    Partition 1    Primary           32 GB    32 KB
  * Partition 2    Unknown           24 GB    32 GB

DISKPART> Exit


If you wanted the partition to be only around 6.5 GB since that's all the Tiger image is, and you don't want a whole 40 GB HD gone to waste with a HFS+ filesystem that Windows can't read, use the "create" command with the size attribute like this (same as above but notice the Size attribute) :

DISKPART> create partition primary size=6660 id=af

Notice how diskpart says the type is "Unknown". Disk Management will show "Healthy (Unknown partition)" as well if you specified the type correctly and it will not show up as a drive letter under Windows. You are now ready to load this new partition with Apple's HFS+ disk image........

[edit] Copy the image over your partition

Note : using skip=63 in your dd will skip the bootsector of the image, rendering it unbootable via BIOS disk boot

Note : using /dev/hda2, the second partition on the primary master drive, OSX couldn't mount the root file system on booting my installation. Using /dev/hda1 worked well. Other guides say that you need an entire harddrive for OSX installation, but that's not true. I have two other partitions around (/dev/hda2 and /dev/hda3) and OSX doesn't bother.

(ONLY if you intend to boot with Windows bootloader using chain0 file, you can use the below method)

To speed things up, you can change "bs=512 skip=63" to "bs=32256 skip=1". 32256 = 512 * 63. this will reduce the time to around 10 - 20 min. also append --progress to view how fast it's copying. So the command will become "dd if=tiger-x86-flat.img of=\\?\Device\Harddisk0\Partition2 bs=32256 skip=1 --progress"
- by tkc, got this from forums.

Warning : Using this method will result in GRUB not recognizing the kernel image, printing an "Error 13". Look it up on GRUB's manual for further information. (This is an intractible problem, it seems ! Why mention it if it yields broken results ?)

My bad, but the above method ("bs=32256 skip=1") does work with windows bootloader using the chain0 file as i had dd the image multiple times using these parameters when i screwed up my installation during patching.

[edit] In short

Download and Uncompress

First of all, downloading Mac OS X for Intel related files falls into a "legal gray-area". The file used is named "tiger-x86.tar.bz2" and can be found on thepiratebay.org (the file is often referred to as the "deadmoo" image after its creator). To be sure, I don't condone software piracy. I'm doing this for purely educational purposes. Keep your karma positive, support Apple with sales, and govern yourselves accordingly. And only download this file if you own an Apple x86 PC.

After you have completed downloading the file, you need to uncompress it and thus have 6+ GB of free space. Note that FAT32 file systems only support file sizes up to 4 gigabytes, so you must decompress onto a NTFS, HFS, or Linux filesystem. Download WinRAR to uncompress the file. You may have to give WinRAR as much as 25 minutes or more to uncompress the file. When its done you should have a folder named "tiger-x86" in which you'll find the file "tiger-x86-flat.img". To keep things simple, move the file "tiger-x86-flat.img" to the root of your drive, at the top of your C: drive or to an other place of your choice.

DDing the image with Linux and Windows

Here is dd for Windows. Please note that if your partition is larger than 6.5 GB the remaining space will not be available in OSx. Look around to know how to use the rest of space dd.

How to use dd with Windows ? : put dd program into c:\windows or any location of your choice and also add the image file in the same directory

Linux by default will be able to use dd commands so you don't have to download dd if your using linux

goto accessories (or Start, Run, "cmd") => command prompt, type in dd

Copy the disk image to your partition, skipping the first 63 sectors. This can be done with the following Linux command (replace /dev/hda2 by the partition you want to OSX to reside on) :

 dd if=tiger-x86-flat.img of=/dev/hda2 bs=512 skip=63

If using Linux and you haven't yet uncompressed the image you can just pipe the output of the file :

 tar -jOxf tiger-x86.tar.bz2 tiger-x86/tiger-x86-flat.img | dd of=/dev/hda2 bs=512 skip=63

If you are using Windows 2000/XP or 2003, execute the command dd --list from the tiger-x86's directory to determine what device to use for the of (Output File) parameter (Note : don't forget to extract dd.exe and Diskio.dll from dd-0.3.zip into the tiger-x86's directory or an other directory of your choice) or read this if you don't know how to define the accurate physical drive label. For example :

C:\tiger-x86>dd if=tiger-x86-flat.img of=\\?\Device\Harddisk0\Partition2 bs=512 skip=63 --progress

You can increase the block size to copy the image faster, this changes what's required in the skip= too :

C:\tiger-x86>dd if=tiger-x86-flat.img of=\\?\Device\Harddisk0\Partition2 bs=32256 skip=1 --progress

Output will look something like this, the number of records will change if you increase block size.

rawrite dd for windows version 0.3.
Written by John Newbigin <jn@it.swin.edu.au>
This program is covered by the GPL.  See copying.txt for details
12581793+0 records in
12581793+0 records out

On XP or 2003, be patient it takes some time. Up to an hour, maybe more. [ed. with the modified command (bs=32256 skip=1), it took <5 minutes]

[edit] Complete tutorial for Newbies (Linux)

Mount the disk containing the tiger-x86-flat.img file, eg : If you have your NTFS Windows disk on the first partition of the first disk :

 mkdir /mnt/temp
 mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/temp

If you have the file on a remote Windows share :

 mkdir /mnt/temp
 mount //machinename/share /mnt/temp -t smbfs -o username=yourusername,password=yourpassword

Note : If you are using Ubuntu/Kubuntu live CD make sure you install smbfs if you get problems trying to mount

 sudo apt-get install smbfs

(you can also use an IP address instead of machinename)

Then, do the following, and REPLACE of=/dev/hda2 by whichever partition you noted down above ! (like, of=/dev/hdb3 or of=/dev/hda3, etc..)

 cd /mnt/temp
 dd if=tiger-x86-flat.img of=/dev/hda2 bs=512 skip=63

Note : this will skip the first 63 blocks of the disk image. These blocks describe how the disk is partioned. After the 63rd sector, there is the first partition, which in this case is what we want. Most people get that totally wrong !

Wait long... then

[edit] Installing the bootloader

[edit] Grub in short

If you already have Grub working. Add this section to your /boot/grub/grub.conf (or /boot/grub/menu.lst) :

 title MacOSX
 root (hd0,1)
 chainloader --force +1


I had to put this in my menu.lst file to get things working :

 title OSX_X86
 rootnoverify (hd0,2)
 makeactive
 chainloader +1

If you have an "HFS+ partition error", copy all the files from /usr/standalone/i386 of the Darwin CD to a partition in NTFS, FAT or ext but not hfs on your hard disk, and put this in menu.lst :

 title OSX_X86
 rootnoverify (hd0,2) <- replace hd0,2 by the partition where you have copied chainloader files.
 makeactive
 chainloader /chain0

[edit] Grub for newbies

Get Grub. It's either:

  • Wingrub if you want to install it from Windows.
  • Or simply Grub if you are on Linux.

Which ever choice you make, install it normally, and create rules for your Windows and MacOS X partitions.

On Linux, partitions start from 1. So, we have hda1, hda2, hda3, ...

On Grub, partitions start from 0 ! So you have hda1 = (hd0,0), hda2 = (hd0,1) and so on If you partition with OSX was hdb2, then it is (hd1,1)

Note : Make sure to use the right partition to boot your current OS or you will not be able to boot anymore. Well, actually, it is possible to recover from within Grub at boot, but be sure to have the Grub manual in your hands :)

 title WindowsXP
 root (hd0,0)
 chainloader +1
 title MacOSX
 root (hd0,1)
 chainloader +1

if you choosing use lilo, edit the file /etc/lilo.conf and put this entry :

 other=/dev/hda2 label=MacOSX

Then after run "lilo" at the prompt (as root). .

Need notes on Grub 2

[edit] Windows bootloader boot

You can also use the Windows bootloader (Windows XP/2000/2003/MCE2005 tested and working).

First, copy the file chain0 (DEV-DVD or tiger-x86 image at /usr/standalone/i386/chain0) to the root of your Windows drive (usually C:\). Now add a new line to your boot.ini (C:\boot.ini opened with Notepad will do). [Note : Uncheck temporarily, if needed, the attribute Read only of boot.ini to save changes] :

C:\chain0="Mac OS x86"

Be sure to check you didn't mess up the boot.ini file by going to Start - Run and typing in "msconfig" and pressing OK. Now go to the Boot.ini tab and press Check All Boot Paths.

Two other ways to get ahold of the chain0 file :

  • Use MediaFour MacDrive 6 to read the Mac partition after you "dd" the tiger-x86 image to it, and it's located at X:\usr\standalone\i386\chain0 (X being the drive letter of the Mac partition). NOTE : you will have to give the partition a drive letter using the Windows Disk Manager utility. Right click on the partition and choose Assign Drive Letter...

One temporary way to get the chain0 file :

Note: The Windows bootloader method will also work if you install OSX on a separate hard drive (not just a different partition, but a totally different piece of hardware). If that's the case, a sure-fire way to set it up:

1) Start with Windows installed on your Master HDD.
2) Install OSX on your Slave HDD.
2a) (Master and slave when both HDDs are on the same IDE cable).
3) Turn your computer off, unplug the power cable for the Slave drive.
4) Boot to Windows, copy the chain0 file to C:\ and the C:\chain0="Mac OS x86" string to your boot.ini file, check your paths in MSCONFIG as detailed above (and set a timeout if you wish).
5) Turn off computer, reconnect power cable to the Slave drive.
6) Boot your computer: you should now have a boot menu to choose XP or OSX!

[edit] What if I have trouble booting Windows ?

If you incorrectly modify your boot.ini file, you may get a message like this when attempting to boot Windows :

Windows cannot start because hal.dll is missing or corrupted.

In truth, the file probably isn't missing or corrupted. It's more likely an error in your boot.ini file. If you added a new OSX86 partition before your Windows one, Windows will not look on the correct partition for your Windows installation. Therefore, to fix this, you can try this : (Note : I actually reinstalled Windows because I didn't know how to fix this, so this info hasn't been tested. (Someone, please confirm this works)). Confirm - it works ! Didn't work for me, reinstalled :( Did allow windows setup to find the install and attempt repair, but NTLDR not found on 1st reboot :(

   * In your BIOS set CD-ROM as 1st Boot Device.
   * Insert your Windows XP Setup CD, to boot from CD.
   * After the initial loading of drivers is over, on 
   * the Welcome to Setup Screen with 3 options ; Press R key, to "Repair XP installation using
     Recovery Console".
     On the next screen you will be asked to choose your Windows installation, choose the one that is
     causing the problem by typing the number beside it.
   * You will be prompted for Adminstrator account's password. Press Enter if the password was blank.
   * Type the following commands, and press enter after each one :
         o Attrib -H-R-S C:\Boot.ini
           (where C: is the partition where XP was installed)
         o DEL C:\Boot.ini
         o BootCfg /Rebuild
           (Enter Load Identifier: "Microsoft Windows XP Professional" or as appropriate to your install)
           (Enter OS Load Options: /fastdetect /noexecute=optin)
          *Enter "/fastdetect" only if you have a Windows XP installation and use
           "/noexecute=optin" if you are using a Intel XD or AMD NX buffer overflow detection CPU 
         o Fixboot
         o exit
   * your PC will now Reboot 

(Note, the above method may remove any OS's listed other than versions of Windows !)

Another method is to manually edit your boot.ini file to point to the correct partition number.

Hope this helps anyone with such problems.

[edit] If Your Windows Install is on D:

On some boxes [notably early ShuttleX] you end up with Windows on the D: Drive. So you have to save chain0 to the root of D:. When your box is like this :

C:\chain0="Mac OS x86"     <<< Use this code in the boot.ini
D:\chain0="Mac OS x86"     <<< Do Not Use

[edit] What if I get a "Chain booting error" message ?

This message comes from chain0, it probably means it cannot find the right partition. Make sure you have a partition of type AF and it correctly has the disk image copied to it.


If it's still not working, Make sure your OSX partition (af) is not UNDER an extended partition. It also have to be a PRIMARY Partition, not a Logical. Ex.:


Good:

-hda1, primary, boot, ntfs, etc. (windows partition)

-hda2, primary, af, etc.

-hda3, extended...

-hda4, logical, ntfs, etc.


bad:

-hda1, primary, boot, ntfs, etc. (windows partition)

-hda2, extended...

-hda3, primary, af, etc.

-hda4, logical, ntfs, etc.

[edit] Even Easier Boot

Boot off your Live CD.

 cfdisk /dev/hda

Toggle the Bootable flag for the partition that you have OSX86 on.

l;l

[edit] Even Easier CD Less Boot

Boot off a Windows boot disk or go to Mac How. Type :

fdisk

then press 2 then 1 to select the Mac OSX hard drive as active. (screenshot). EXIT back to the prompt, remove the boot disk, restart; and enjoy dual booting. It will (boot) to MacOS by default - but if you wish to cross back to the dark side, strike a key during the countdown ; scroll down to Windows ; press enter ;). If you don't get a countdown : press F8 at the grey apple splashscreen).

[edit] Using a simple & free bootmanager

Get XFDISK You'll have to create a bootfloppy in XP and put xfdisk on it

reboot from floppy: run and install XFDISK: Pretty easy: Enter and F3 are your friends :)


Reboot without floppy and chose whatever-you-named-the-osx-partition

[edit] Easiest CD-less Floppy-less Boot (Windows 2000/XP/2003)

You don't need a live CD or floppy to set the OS X partition as active, simply use Microsoft's diskpart :
(NOTE : With personal experience, using this method of installation on 2 computers now (1 XP Home and 1 XP Pro), you actually don't have to set the partition active).

diskpart
select disk X
select partition Y
 'Note that in diskpart, disks are 0-based, but partitions are 1-based
DISKPART> active

DiskPart marked the current partition as active.

DISKPART>

Note : About the number for Disk and Partition, X=0 and Y=2, just in case the duplication of the Deadmoo image was (the step before) :

[C:\tiger-x86>dd if=tiger-x86-flat.img of=\\?\Device\Harddisk0\Partition2 bs=512 skip=63 --progress]

or

[C:\tiger-x86>dd if=tiger-x86-flat.img of=\\?\Device\Harddisk0\Partition2 bs=32256 skip=1 --progress]

Or to put it another way : if dd --list fails to see the partition created with diskpart (in which case you have no windows identifier and the "\\?\Device\HarddiskVolumeN" notation won't work) use \\?\Device\HarddiskX\PartitionY where X counts from 0 and Y counts from 1 as per the diskpart notation above.

[edit] Booting into OSX !

Ok, if everything went well, reboot, select OSX, it will boot :)

0. Your OSX HD must be the "Primary Master Drive" and your DVD the "Primary Slave" (both connected in the 1st IDE chanell). Before you try to boot get this done!!.
Press F8 to get the boot menu:
1. Boot with -x if it keeps asking to reboot (This will boot safe mode).
2. Boot with -v to see code being executed, to determine where the code is getting halted.
3. Also try "platform=X86PC -v" (Code kept halting on the "AppleTPMACPI.kext") -- This seem to fix it.

To login, deadmoo's password is "bovinity", once in OSX, you can change username/password. (keys are evt. changed so that y=z & z=y)

To change Username/Password in single-user mode :

1. startup single user mode with -s
2. /sbin/fsck -fy
3. /sbin/mount -uw /
4. mv /var/db/netinfo/local.nidb /var/db/netinfo/local.old
5. rm /var/db/.AppleSetupDone
6. reboot

Don't forget : "Do not update to 10.4.2, do not update iPhoto, QuickTime, in point of fact don't upgrade anything at all except iTunes if you want since it is only a PPC app". (thanks Iradeon from OSx86 Project Forum)

Very important : after the installation, read Tips And Tricks, SpeedBoost and SSE2 patches. SpeedBoost is definitely a must read. (Great thanks everybody, Deadmoo and Maxxuss, etc.).

Good luck and enjoy ! :p

[edit] User Questions

Q: I am using Dell Inspiron 6400 laptop. I have nearly 20 GB of free space. Whenever I issue "create partition primary id=af" command it says "DiskPart was unable to create the specified partition.".... can any one please help me????

A : The default dell partition table makes use of the 4 available slots for Dell utility, Dell Recovery, OS and MediaDirect. The partitioning of a Windows Vista enabled PC is different, but still occupies all 4 slots (Dell's Vista partitioning). There is no space for an additional primary partition unless you delete other partitions or shift some into extended partitions.


Q : Can You Install MAC OSX on an AMD ? Or is it exclusively for Intel Processors ?

A : It runs on AMD Processors too. You will need to do a few tweaks to increase the speed.


Q : Does the change in block size when copying over the image, effect the speed of the resulting OS X install?

A : No, it simply speeds up the execution of the dd command.


Q : Umm... What if it still asks to reboot even after typing -x for safe mode bootup ? (upon using -s to boot I see it stops at "Waiting for remote debugger connection. kdp_poll: no debugger device".

A : That's probably because your USB-Controller/IRDA or any other component isn't supported. Disable it in the BIOS and you'll be fine. Disable IRDA, USB support in the BIOS.


Q : But wouldn't that stop USB functionality in OS X? What if we need it for removable storage, iPods, or mice/keyboards?

A : .I suppose you would need to try out another USB-Controller/IRDA card, or whatever card is causing the problem. If you purchased one designed for a mac, it would probably have a much higher chance of working.


Q : It's going really slow, any work around for this ?

A : OSX should run really fast (if you do it natively). Check this important page for speedboosts and get a decent processor (At least 2 GHz).


Q : Is there any way to get around it asking me to reboot other than safemode ?

A : use the -v at the boot options (in Darwin) to see what driver is panicing. Then disable it in your BIOS or remove the card(s). Usually it tends to be the USB.


Q : How do I get the OS to detect my on-board Ethernet Controller ?

A : Wait for someone to write a driver, write one yourself, or look on an OSX86 compatibility list and buy another Ethernet Card that is already supported.


Q : How do I get the Tiger OSX image ? Does apple sell a x86 version of OSX ? Any link from where I could download it would have been useful.

A : No, Apple does not sell an x86 version of OSX and they do not intend to sell the x86 OSX outside of their own Apple hardware, as, after all, Apple is mainly a hardware company. The Tiger Install DVD is given to Dev members.


Q : I noticed that the chain0 file method does not work on my bootable USB HDD. I was going to try the diskpart method (looks to be the next easiest and cleanest method) but I was wondering how can I then boot to my normal drive/partition if I make the OSX partition active. I don't like to mess with MBR so I didn't want to install GRUB or LILO.

A : You cannot. The function of a specific bootmanager is to switch active partitions. You can off course use a floppy or linux boot cd to switch between active partitions using fdisk.


Q : When I boot OSX, it boots in about 30 minutes, it stalls for minutes on certain procedures during bootup. When it does boot up, all I see is my cursor and a blue screen. ANY idea on what might be the problem ?

A : Try to boot using the '-v' boot options switch to see what is going on. It will tell you on what module the boot process stalls.


Q : I am getting the yellow screen with "please restart your computer" upon boot. What do i do ?

A : Assuming you are using an ATI graphics card: Boot into safe mode with -x and remove all ati kexts from System/Libraries/Extensions. Reboot and you should be in the clear.


Q : I installed this (exact method) on my Dell Inspiron 1150 laptop, and when it starts up, i get a fuzzy fuzzy b&w version of the mac desktop, is there a fix to this ?

A : If you haven't already, update to the latest BIOS from Dell's website. Then go into BIOS and change your video RAM size to 8mb, up from 1mb. It'll display fine, then.


Q : Hi, I got 3 Questions: Is the tiger-x86 OSX 10.4.1 cuz this version is sort of old... And if it is, can anyone post and updated image or can I update it myself? can i mirror the Image to a bigger disk (25gb?) by any chance and have all the space available? Can I install all apps like iLife and so on or are there any limitations? . . .

A: Hi, yes this is OSX 10.4.1, it's pretty old but I managed to make it work perfectly on my pc, even the internet... And you can't update by Software Update, just iTunes 'cause it's the 7.1 version for PowerPC. I installed it on a 17 GB partition on my HDD and it says there are 2.08 GB free for my files, so I guess the OS takes up 15 GB; of course you can user the other 10 GB of your 25GB HDD. Theorically you could install all the native Mac OSX apps, like iLife, but i tried to install iWork and it says "OSX 10.4.10 required"... too bad... I guess it's the same with iLife. Good luck. .

Q :I am running win7, and xp sp2 on virtualbox. i installed tiger using this method in xp. now booting hangs on apple grey screen. my pc specs i have no Vtx . what to do?


This page was last modified on 15 December 2011, at 19:22.
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